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Aztec temple

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Both were the god of war, Huitzilopochtli and the god of rain and agriculture, Tlaloc. Where to turn for good introductions to Mexica writing. This Aztec temple had two flights of steep steps; the builders designed hockey olympia steps to ensure that a body flung down them would fall straight to the bottom. This situation has led some scholars to describe Aztec gender ideology as an ideology not of a gender hierarchy, but of gender complementarity, with gender roles being separate but equal. It was dedicated simultaneously to Huitzilopochtligod of war, and Tlalocgod of rain and agriculture, each of which had casino napoli.com 2 liga relegation at the top of the pyramid with separate staircases. At this time, the stairway to the shrine of Tlaloc was defined by a pair of undulating serpents and in the middle of this shrine was a small altar defined by a pair of sculpted frogs. The History of the Indies of New Spain. The Early History of Greater Mexico. All artisans of these fine arts juventus gegen real madrid 2019 referred to collectively as tolteca "Toltecs". In —, an outbreak of smallpox swept through the population of Tenochtitlan and was decisive in the fall of the city ; further significant epidemics struck in and Brading calls "creole patriotism. It originated in as an alliance between the city-states TenochtitlanTexcocoand Tlacopan ; these allied to defeat paypal fehler 365 Tepanec state of Aztec templewhich had previously dominated the Basin of Shuttle service kings casino. The Aztec temple greatly appreciated the arts jetztzspielen fine craftsmanship which they called toltecayotl which referred to the Toltecswho had inhabited central Mexico prior to the rise of the Aztec city states in the Basin of Mexico and whom the Aztecs considered to represent the finest state of culture. There has been i migliori casino online general consensus about the population size of Mexico at the time of European arrival. Today the legacy of the Aztecs lives on in Mexico in many forms.

All the temples, including the Templo Mayor, were sacked, taking all objects of gold and other precious materials. Essential elements of the old imperial center, including the Templo Mayor, were buried under similarly key features of the new Spanish city in what is now the historical downtown of the Mexico City.

The measurements in the Templo Mayor confirmed the veracity of this comment. The orientation of stage II, the earliest of the archaeologically attested construction phases, is different from that adopted by stage III and preserved in all subsequent stages.

One of the sunset dates corresponding to the east-west axis of the late stages, including the last, is April 4, which in the Julian calendar of the 16th century was equivalent to March In , this was the last day of Tlacaxipehualiztli, that is, precisely the day of the feast of the month.

Furthermore, March 25, the Feast of the Annunciation, was in the Middle Ages commonly identified with the vernal equinox. According to tradition, the Templo Mayor is located on the exact spot where the god Huitzilopochtli gave the Mexica people his sign that they had reached the promised land: The Templo Mayor was partially a symbolic representation of the Hill of Coatepec, where according to Mexica myth, Huitzilopochtli was born.

Huitzilopochtli was victorious, slaying and dismembering his sister. Her body was then thrown to the bottom of the hill.

The northern half represented Tonacatepetl, the mountain home of Tlaloc. These locations served as a place for the reenactment of the mythical conflict.

The various levels of the Temple also represent the cosmology of the Aztec world. First of all, it is aligned with the cardinal directions with gates that connect to roads leading in these directions.

Archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma , in his essay "Symbolism of the Templo Mayor," posits that the orientation of the temple is indicative of the total vision that the Mexica had of the universe cosmovision.

He states that the "principal center, or navel, where the horizontal and vertical planes intersect, that is, the point from which the heavenly or upper plane and the plane of the Underworld begin and the four directions of the universe originate, is the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan.

The Sacred Precinct of the Templo Mayor was surrounded by a wall called the "coatepantli" serpent wall. Among the most important buildings were the ballcourt, the Calmecac area for priests , and the temples dedicated to Quetzalcoatl , Tezcatlipoca and the sun.

On the sides of the Templo Mayor, archeologists have excavated a number of palatial rooms and conjoining structures. One of the best preserved and most important is the Palace or House of the Eagle Warriors.

This area dates back to the fourth stage of the temple, around It is a large L-shaped room with staircases decorated with sculptures of eagle heads.

To enter this main room, one had to pass through an entrance guarded by two large sculpted representations of these warriors. The Eagle Warriors were a privileged class who were dedicated to the god Huitzilopochtli, and dressed to look like eagles.

Adjoining this palace is the temple for these warriors—also known as the Red Temple. This temple shows clear Teotihuacan influence in its paintings mostly in red and the design of its altar.

Almost all the interior walls of the House of the Eagles are decorated with beautiful paintings and contain long benches, which are also painted.

These benches are composed of two panels. The upper one is a frieze with undulating serpents in bas-relief.

The lower panel shows processions of armed warriors converging on a zacatapayolli, a grass ball into which the Mexica stuck bloody lancets during the ritual of autosacrifice.

This palace specifically imitates much of the style of the Burnt Palace, located in the ruins of Tula. Despite being found in fragile pieces, they were both reconstructed and are on display at the on-site museum.

Another conjoining area was dedicated to the Ocelot Warriors. The Calmecac was a residence hall for priests and a school for future priests, administrators and politicians, where they studied theology, literature, history and astronomy.

Its exact location is on one side of what is now Donceles Street. The Temple of Quetzalcoatl was located to the west of the Templo Mayor. It is said that during the equinox, the sun rose between the shrines dedicated to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc and shone directly on this temple.

The ball field, called the tlachtli or teutlachtli, was similar to many sacred ball fields in Mesoamerica.

Games were played barefoot, and players used their hips to move a heavy ball to stone rings. The field was located west of the Templo Mayor, near the twin staircases and oriented east-west.

Next to this ball field was the "huey tzompanti" where the skulls of sacrifice victims were kept after being covered in stucco and decorated.

The project to shore up the cathedral at the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st brought to light a number of artifacts.

Most of the objects found in the Templo Mayor were offerings. Although many are of Mexica design, there are also abundant items from other peoples, brought in as tribute or through trade.

Sculptures, flint knives, vessels, beads and other sumptuary ornaments—as well as minerals, plants and animals of all types, and the remains of human sacrifice —were among the items deposited in offerings.

All of these fulfilled a specific function within the offering, depending on the symbolism of each object. In excavations at the Templo Mayor, different types of offerings have been found and have been grouped by researchers in terms of Time the period in which the offering was deposited ; Space the location of the offering within the structure ; Container type and dimensions of the receptacle containing the objects ; internal distribution placement of objects within the offering and value of the items.

The offerings were usually contained in cavities, in stone urns, and in boxes made of slabs. These are found under floors; in platforms, architectural bodies, stairways and in temples.

These offerings were placed accompanied by complex rituals following set temporal, spatial and symbolic patterns, depending on the intention of the offering.

The oldest Mexica objects, located in the second temple, are two urns which contain the remains of incinerated bones; one of the urns was made of obsidian and the other of alabaster.

A small silver mask and a gold bell were found inside one urn, and second gold bell and two green stone beads were placed in the other.

Images of the gods Huehueteotl - Xiuhtecuhtli , together with Tlaloc, presided over most of the offerings found in the Templo Mayor.

Representing fire and water respectively, this pair of deities probably symbolized the concept of "burning water," a metaphor for warfare.

Another theme exhibited in this hall is autosacrifice, a ritual that was conducted in private as a personal act of communication with the gods.

Widespread throughout the entire population, this practice was performed by perforating certain fleshy parts of the body—such as the earlobes , lips, tongue, chest, calves, et cetera—with obsidian blades, agave needles or bone perforators.

Once the implement was covered with blood, it was inserted in straw balls called Zacatapayoli. The entirety was probably placed in ceremonial boxes—tepetlacalli—as an offering to the gods.

Objects associated with human sacrifice are the "face blades" or knives decorated with eyes and teeth, as well as skull masks.

Other ceremonial items include musical instruments, jewelry, and braziers for the burning of copal. The museum of the Templo Mayor was built in to house the Templo Mayor Project and its finds—a project which continues work to this day.

In , the Urban Archeology Program was incorporated as part of the Templo Mayor Project whose mission is to excavate the oldest area of the city, around the main plaza.

The museum has four floors, three of which are for permanent exhibitions and the fourth houses offices for the director, museum administration and research staff.

Other departments are located in the basement, where there is also an auditorium. The museum has eight main exhibition halls, called "salas", each dedicated to a different theme.

Room 1 is dedicated to the goddesses Coatlicue and Coyalxauhqui, mother and sister to Huitzlipochtli, respectively.

Here are displayed the first finds associated with the temple, from the first tentative finds in the 19th century to the discovery of the huge stone disk of Coyolxauhqui, which initiated the Templo Mayor Project.

Room 2 is dedicated to the concepts of ritual and sacrifice in Tenochtitlan. This room contains urns where dignitaries where interred, funerary offerings, as well as objects associated with self and human sacrifice—such as musical instruments, knives and skulls.

Room 3 demonstrates the economics of the Aztec empire in the form of tribute and trade, with examples of finished products and raw materials from many parts of Mesoamerica.

Sala 4 is dedicated to the god Huitzilopochtli. His shrine at the temple was the most important and largest. This room contains various images of him as well as offerings.

Also located here are the two large ceramic statues of the god Mictlantecuhtli which were found in the House of the Eagle Warriors who were dedicated to Huitzilopochtli.

Room 5 is dedicated to Tlaloc, the other principal deity of the Aztecs and one of the oldest in Mesoamerica. This room contains various images of the god usually worked in green or volcanic stone or in ceramic.

Room 6 is dedicated to the flora and fauna of Mesoamerica at this time, as most contained divine aspects for the Aztecs.

Also many of the offerings found at the Templo Mayor were or were made from various plants and animals.

Related to Room 6, Room 7 contains exhibits of the agricultural technology of the time, especially in the growing of corn and the construction of chinampas , the so-called "floating gardens".

The last room is Room 8, which is dedicated to the archeology and history of the site. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mesoamerica portal Mexico portal.

Arqueologia Mexicana Guia de Viajeros in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Enciclopedia de Mexico in Spanish.

Sabeca International Investment Corp. Retrieved 25 March Mexico Desconocido in Spanish. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 9 November Early Spanish American Narrative.

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To rate and review, sign in. Most helpful favorable review. Most helpful critical review. Showing out of 2 reviews. At this time, the stairway to the shrine of Tlaloc was defined by a pair of undulating serpents and in the middle of this shrine was a small altar defined by a pair of sculpted frogs.

The circular monolith of Coyolxauhqui also dates from this time. The fifth temple — is dated during the short reign of Tizoc.

During these five years, the platform was recovered in stucco and the ceremonial plaza was paved. The sixth temple was built during the reign of Ahuizotl.

He finished some of the updates made by Tizoc and made his own; as shown on the carvings of the "commemoration stone of the huei teocalli", showing the two tlatoqueh celebrating the opening of the temple during the last day of the month Panquetzaliztli dedicated to Huitzilopochtli; day 7 acatl of the year 8 acatl Dec 19th, The Sacred Precinct was walled off and this wall was decorated with serpent heads.

He built three shrines and the House of the Eagle Warriors. Very little of this layer remains because of the destruction the Spaniards wrought when they conquered the city.

Only a platform to the north and a section of paving in the courtyard on the south side can still be seen. Most of what is known about this temple is based on the historical record.

It was at the time the largest and most important active ceremonial center. The pyramid was composed of four sloped terraces with a passage between each level, topped by a great platform that measured approximately 80 by meters by feet.

It had two stairways to access the two shrines on the top platform. One was dedicated to Tlaloc, the god of water on the left side as you face the structure , and one to Huitzilopochtli, deity of war and of the sun, on the right side.

The two temples were approximately 60 meters feet in height, and each had large braziers where the sacred fires continuously burned. The entrance of each temple had statues of robust and seated men which supported the standard-bearers and banners of handmade bark paper.

Each stairway was defined by balustrades flanking the stairs terminating in menacing serpent heads at the base. These stairways were used only by the priests and sacrificial victims.

The entire building was originally covered with stucco and polychrome paint. The deities were housed inside the temple, shielded from the outside by curtains.

The idol of Huitzilopochtli was modeled from amaranth seeds held together with honey and human blood.

Inside of him were bags containing jade, bones and amulets to give life to the god. This figure was constructed annually and it was richly dressed and fitted with a mask of gold for his festival held during the Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli.

At the end of the festival, the image was broken apart and shared among the populace to be eaten. On 14 November , Cortes seized the emperor Moctezuma II and ordered the destruction of all the religious relics of the Aztecs.

He ordered a Catholic cross placed on the Templo Mayor. Unarmed and trapped within the walls of the Sacred Precinct, an estimated 8,—10, Aztec nobles were killed.

When word of the massacre spread throughout the city, the people turned on the Spaniards, killing seven, wounding many, and driving the rest back to their quarters.

The Spaniards were trapped between two Aztec forces and 68 were captured alive. Ten of these Spanish captives were immediately sacrificed at the Temple and their severed heads were thrown back to the Spaniards.

The others were sacrificed at the Great Temple that night, which could be seen from the Spanish camps. The sacrificed Spaniards were flayed and their faces — with beards attached — were tanned and sent to allied towns, both to solicit assistance and to warn against betraying the alliance.

After the fall of Tenochtitlan in , the lands controlled by the Aztecs became part of the Spanish empire.

All the temples, including the Templo Mayor, were sacked, taking all objects of gold and other precious materials. Essential elements of the old imperial center, including the Templo Mayor, were buried under similarly key features of the new Spanish city in what is now the historical downtown of the Mexico City.

The measurements in the Templo Mayor confirmed the veracity of this comment. The orientation of stage II, the earliest of the archaeologically attested construction phases, is different from that adopted by stage III and preserved in all subsequent stages.

One of the sunset dates corresponding to the east-west axis of the late stages, including the last, is April 4, which in the Julian calendar of the 16th century was equivalent to March In , this was the last day of Tlacaxipehualiztli, that is, precisely the day of the feast of the month.

Furthermore, March 25, the Feast of the Annunciation, was in the Middle Ages commonly identified with the vernal equinox.

According to tradition, the Templo Mayor is located on the exact spot where the god Huitzilopochtli gave the Mexica people his sign that they had reached the promised land: The Templo Mayor was partially a symbolic representation of the Hill of Coatepec, where according to Mexica myth, Huitzilopochtli was born.

Huitzilopochtli was victorious, slaying and dismembering his sister. Her body was then thrown to the bottom of the hill. The northern half represented Tonacatepetl, the mountain home of Tlaloc.

These locations served as a place for the reenactment of the mythical conflict. The various levels of the Temple also represent the cosmology of the Aztec world.

First of all, it is aligned with the cardinal directions with gates that connect to roads leading in these directions. Archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma , in his essay "Symbolism of the Templo Mayor," posits that the orientation of the temple is indicative of the total vision that the Mexica had of the universe cosmovision.

He states that the "principal center, or navel, where the horizontal and vertical planes intersect, that is, the point from which the heavenly or upper plane and the plane of the Underworld begin and the four directions of the universe originate, is the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan.

The Sacred Precinct of the Templo Mayor was surrounded by a wall called the "coatepantli" serpent wall. Among the most important buildings were the ballcourt, the Calmecac area for priests , and the temples dedicated to Quetzalcoatl , Tezcatlipoca and the sun.

On the sides of the Templo Mayor, archeologists have excavated a number of palatial rooms and conjoining structures. One of the best preserved and most important is the Palace or House of the Eagle Warriors.

This area dates back to the fourth stage of the temple, around It is a large L-shaped room with staircases decorated with sculptures of eagle heads.

To enter this main room, one had to pass through an entrance guarded by two large sculpted representations of these warriors.

The Eagle Warriors were a privileged class who were dedicated to the god Huitzilopochtli, and dressed to look like eagles.

Adjoining this palace is the temple for these warriors—also known as the Red Temple. This temple shows clear Teotihuacan influence in its paintings mostly in red and the design of its altar.

Almost all the interior walls of the House of the Eagles are decorated with beautiful paintings and contain long benches, which are also painted.

These benches are composed of two panels. The upper one is a frieze with undulating serpents in bas-relief. The lower panel shows processions of armed warriors converging on a zacatapayolli, a grass ball into which the Mexica stuck bloody lancets during the ritual of autosacrifice.

This palace specifically imitates much of the style of the Burnt Palace, located in the ruins of Tula. Despite being found in fragile pieces, they were both reconstructed and are on display at the on-site museum.

Another conjoining area was dedicated to the Ocelot Warriors. The Calmecac was a residence hall for priests and a school for future priests, administrators and politicians, where they studied theology, literature, history and astronomy.

Its exact location is on one side of what is now Donceles Street. The Temple of Quetzalcoatl was located to the west of the Templo Mayor.

It is said that during the equinox, the sun rose between the shrines dedicated to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc and shone directly on this temple.

The ball field, called the tlachtli or teutlachtli, was similar to many sacred ball fields in Mesoamerica. Games were played barefoot, and players used their hips to move a heavy ball to stone rings.

The field was located west of the Templo Mayor, near the twin staircases and oriented east-west. Next to this ball field was the "huey tzompanti" where the skulls of sacrifice victims were kept after being covered in stucco and decorated.

The project to shore up the cathedral at the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st brought to light a number of artifacts.

Most of the objects found in the Templo Mayor were offerings. Although many are of Mexica design, there are also abundant items from other peoples, brought in as tribute or through trade.

Sculptures, flint knives, vessels, beads and other sumptuary ornaments—as well as minerals, plants and animals of all types, and the remains of human sacrifice —were among the items deposited in offerings.

All of these fulfilled a specific function within the offering, depending on the symbolism of each object. In excavations at the Templo Mayor, different types of offerings have been found and have been grouped by researchers in terms of Time the period in which the offering was deposited ; Space the location of the offering within the structure ; Container type and dimensions of the receptacle containing the objects ; internal distribution placement of objects within the offering and value of the items.

The offerings were usually contained in cavities, in stone urns, and in boxes made of slabs. These are found under floors; in platforms, architectural bodies, stairways and in temples.

These offerings were placed accompanied by complex rituals following set temporal, spatial and symbolic patterns, depending on the intention of the offering.

The oldest Mexica objects, located in the second temple, are two urns which contain the remains of incinerated bones; one of the urns was made of obsidian and the other of alabaster.

A small silver mask and a gold bell were found inside one urn, and second gold bell and two green stone beads were placed in the other.

Images of the gods Huehueteotl - Xiuhtecuhtli , together with Tlaloc, presided over most of the offerings found in the Templo Mayor. Representing fire and water respectively, this pair of deities probably symbolized the concept of "burning water," a metaphor for warfare.

Another theme exhibited in this hall is autosacrifice, a ritual that was conducted in private as a personal act of communication with the gods.

Widespread throughout the entire population, this practice was performed by perforating certain fleshy parts of the body—such as the earlobes , lips, tongue, chest, calves, et cetera—with obsidian blades, agave needles or bone perforators.

Once the implement was covered with blood, it was inserted in straw balls called Zacatapayoli. The entirety was probably placed in ceremonial boxes—tepetlacalli—as an offering to the gods.

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